Achieving water security and food security for all in an increasingly water stressed world is intimately linked to energy security. While food demand may increase by up to 70 per cent by 2050, the global demand for energy may increase by up to 40 percent. Agriculture accounts for some 70 per cent of the world's freshwater withdrawals for food, feed and fibre, as well as for production of bio-fuels. Energy production in some parts of the world accounts for up to 45 per cent of all water withdrawals. Satisfying these demands, while maintaining ecosystems, livelihoods, fisheries and biodiversity, is a challenge. While energy production carries a heavy water bill, a significant energy bill is associated with pumping, treatment and desalination of water. The "footprints" work both ways. Hence water, food and energy security need to be addressed in an integrated way, in the context of a pro-poor green economy valuing ecosystem services, as a "nexus" with water at the heart. It will also exemplify solutions to maximise synergies, towards a 'green food security', and to enable policy and institutional changes required to better address the social, economic and environmental dimensions the green economy through a "nexus" approach.
- Dr. Fritz Holzwarth, BMU, Germany
- Mr. Johan Kuylenstierna, SEI
- Mr. Jeremy Bird, IWMI
Mr. Alain Vidal, Director, CGIAR CPWF, and Dr. Torkil Jønch Clausen, SIWI
09:00 Welcome and Introduction to Workshop. Brief Report from Bonn2011 and Rio+20.
Dr. Fritz Holzwarth, BMU, Co-convener of Bonn2011 Conference
09:15 Keynote: Towards a Green and Growing Economy with the Water-Food-Energy Nexus.
Prof. Joachim von Braun, Center for Development Research, ZEF, Germany
09:30 Crossing Water-Food-Energy Nexus in the Middle East: Integrate Resource Planning and Trade-offs to Meet a Green, Sustainable Economy.
Mr. Jay Witherspoon, CH2M HILL, Australia
09:45 Dams on the Mekong River: Lost Fish Protein and the Implications for Land and Water Resources.
Mr. Stuart Orr, WWF International
10:00 Questions & Answers. Summing Up by Moderator
10:30 Coffee Break
11:00 Keynote: A Business Perspective on the Stress Nexus.
Mr. Erwin Nijasse, Shell Group Strategy
11:15 Integrating Water and Energy Policy for Hydropower Development in the Amazon Region.
Ms. Olimar Maisonet-Guzman, The American University, USA
11:30 Future Challenges in Northeast Thailand: The Nexus of Energy, Water and Food Investments.
Ms. Orn-Uma Polpanich, SEI
11:45 Questions and Answers
11:55 Introduction and Questions by Moderator, Followed by Discussions Around Tables. Report-back from Tables and Brief Plenary Discussion
12:25 Summing up by Moderator
14:00 Brief Summary of Morning Sessions and Introduction to Afternoon Sessions by Moderators
14:10 Moving the Water-Food-Energy Nexus forward with an Ecosystem Services Perspective - Report from the World Water Forum 6 Nexus High-Level Panel.
Mr. Alain Vidal, CGIAR CPWF
14:25 Keynote: Water for Food, Energy and Ecosystems - Options for Benefits Sharing in the Upper Niger Basin.
Dr. Jane Madgwick, WI
14:40 Rising Prices, Rising Environmental Regions? Constructing a Multi-Level Governance Framework for the Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus.
Dr. Inga Jacobs, WRC, South Africa
14:55 Green Water Credits - An Innovative Investment Mechanism to Reach Sustainable Soil, Water and Energy Resources Management in a River Basin.
Mr. Godert van Lynden, ISRIC - World Soil Information, The Netherlands
15:10 Questions & Answers. Summing up by Moderator
15:30 Coffee Break
16:00 Implications of Yunnan's (China) Aggressive Hydropower Development on Regional Food Security, Changing
Land Utilization and Livelihood.
Dr. Thomas Hennig, Phillipps-Universität Marburg, Germany
16:15 Innovations in Managing the Agriculture, Energy and Groundwater Nexus: Evidence from Two States in India.
Dr. Aditi Mukherji, IWMI
16:30 Final Panel Discussion
- Ms. Letitia Obeng, Chair GWP
- Mr. Bai-Mass Taal, AMCOW
- Mr. Hans Guttman, Mekong River Commission, China
- Dr. Fritz Holzwarth, BMU, Germany
- Mr. Alex McPhail, WB
17:15 Summing-Up and Conclusions
Event Summary and Conclusions
Achieving water security and food security for all in an increasingly water stressed world is intimately linked to energy security. While food demand may increase by up to 70 per cent by 2050, the global demand for energy may increase by up to 40 per cent. Agriculture accounts for some 70 per cent of the world's freshwater withdrawals for food, feed, fibre and fuel. Energy production in some parts of the world accounts for up to 45 per cent of all water withdrawals. Satisfying these demands, while maintaining ecosystems, livelihoods, fisheries and biodiversity, is a challenge. While energy production carries a heavy water bill, a significant energy bill is associated with pumping, treatment and desalination of water. The "footprints" work both ways. Hence water, food and energy security need to be addressed in an integrated way, in the context of a pro-poor green economy valuing ecosystem services, as a "nexus" with water at the heart.
The Workshop addressed these issues through a series of keynote presentations, invited scientific papers, discussions between presenters and audience, including a roundtable discussion, and a final Panel Discussion. The keynotes addresses set the stage by reports from the Bonn2011 Conference and 6th World Water Forum in March 2012, as well as from renowned international institutions working with the nexus, and eight scientific papers from around the world illustrated how these issues are conceptualized and addressed in practice.
The examples included the water quality and reuse dimensions of the nexus in water scarce Middle East; the protein challenge in Mekong River as host of the world’s largest inland fisheries threatened by hydropower development; food security against hydropower development in the Amazon and in the Yunnan province of China; pricing and nexus governance in South Africa; green water credits as a mechanism to reach sustainable soil, water and energy resources management; and innovations in managing the agriculture, energy and groundwater nexus in India.
The Workshop concluded that:
- The Water-Food-Energy Nexus responds to increasing scarcity of natural resources due to increasing demands by highlighting the interconnectivity of decisions to improve the efficiency and sustainability of our economies and avoid unintended consequences. A nexus approach both challenge and stimulate the water, food and energy sectors to collaborate. Considerations of ecosystem functions and water quality are as important as water quantity.
- The challenge remains how to implement the nexus in practice by identifying entry points at local, national and transboundary levels and building on existing frameworks such as IWRM. Implementation calls for pragmatism rather than dogmatism, for sharing of experiences across sectors and between diverse geographic, physical and cultural settings.
- Taking a nexus perspective requires that water, food and energy pricing, opportunity costs and trade-offs are addressed. More consistent and coherent policy frameworks as well as effective and flexible governance approaches are essential for allowing markets to work for resource efficiency and ensuring equitable access to services. Sharing of benefits, and valuing water and water ecosystem services consistently, make nexus thinking contribute to our economies more than the sum of its component parts. There is no win-win and no sustainability without sharing and collaboration.
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